Coronavirus is a virus that causes respiratory infections in mammals and birds. The disease has no vaccines or antiviral drugs approved for treatment or prevention.
Normally coronavirus causes common colds and and respiratory infections in humans. Other symptoms include fever, swollen throat adenoids. It can also lead to pneumonia and bronchitis . The most severe and contagious type of corona virus was discovered in 2003, the SARS Coronavirus that can cause severe acute respiratory syndrome (SARS) and has a unique pathogenesis of causing both upper and lower respiratory tract infections. This strain of Coronavirus is considered the most fatal and also is the most publicized.
The ability of this virus to undergo mutations at a rapid rate contribute to its pathogenecity. Till now the SARS Cov was considered the most fatal type of corona virus.
Now, a novel strain of Coronavirus 2019-nCoV has been discovered and is infecting thousands of people in China. This novel strain of corona virus is also known as Wuhan corona virus or Wuhan pneumonia , after the name of the city in China it has affected the most.
Coronavirus are a family of single stranded, positive strand RNA virus classified within the Nidovirales order. The genome RNA is complexed with the basic nucleocapsid (N) protein to form a helical capsid found within the viral membrane. The membranes of all coronaviruses contain at least three viral proteins. These are spike (S), the type I glycoprotein that forms the peplomers on the virion surface, giving the virus its corona- or crown-like morphology in the electron microscope; the membrane (M) protein, a protein that spans the membrane three times and has a short N-terminal ectodomain and a cytoplasmic tail; and small membrane protein (E), a highly hydrophobic protein.Some group II coronaviruses have an additional membrane protein, hemagglutinin esterase (HE) . While the function of HE is not known, it has been speculated to aid in viral entry.
VIRAL LIFE CYCLE
Corona Virus attach to specific cell receptor with the help of spike proteins, this triggers a conformational change in the spikes which the mediates the fusion between the the viral and cell membranes which results in the release of the nucleocapsid into the cell .
T first the virus synthesizes its RNA polymerase that only recognizes and synthesizes viral RNA. This enzyme then synthesizes the minus RNA strand using the positive strand as template.
Subsequently , this minus strand acts as a template for transcribing the other smaller subgenomic positive RNAs that is used to synthesize other proteins. The protein N binds the genomic RNA and the protein M is integrated into the membrane of endoplasmic reticulum like the envelope proteins S and HE.After binding the nucleocapsid and the twisted RNA bud into the endoplasmic reticulum lumen and are encased within its membrane.
The viral progeny are finally transported by golgi vesicles to the cell membrane where they are exocytosed to the exterior of the cell.
- Wash your hands frequently.
- Stay away from people who are sick.
- Keep your home and surrounding hygienic.
- Avoid touching your nose, eyes, mouth with unwashed hands.
There are no specific treatments for illnesses caused by human coronaviruses. Most people with common human coronavirus illness will recover on their own. However, you can do some things to relieve your symptoms
- take pain and fever medications (Caution: do not give Aspirin to children).
- use a room humidifier or take a hot shower to help ease a sore throat and cough.
If you are mildly sick, you should
- drink plenty of liquids
- stay home and rest
But in the current situation of the Corona virus epidemic, its best to consult a doctor as soon as you feel that you are sick. any symptoms of cold, respiratory infection, sore throat should be consulted with the doctor as soon as possible.
Don’t panic , be calm ,don’t misunderstand that you are infected with the Corona virus as soon as you have a cold. Consult the doctor and then come to conclusion.
In case someone is diagnosed with the virus, be sure that
- consult a doctor.
- avoid close contact with others.
- cover your mouth and nose with a tissue when you cough or sneeze, then throw the tissue in the trash and wash your hands.
- clean and disinfect objects and surfaces.